Tuesday, November 29, 2011

History of Medicine Course at the Society of Apothecaries


Details are now available of a 3-day introductory course in the History of Medicine, to be held at the Society of Apothecaries, London, on 1st-3rd February 2012.

The programme will cover Ancient, Classical, Eastern and Western medicine and the development of modern medicine from its early roots through to the present world. Speakers will include the Head of Wellcome Library, Dr Simon Chaplin.

More details are available from the Society of Apothecaries website, including the course programme (PDF) and booking details.

Image: Five surgeons participating in the amputation of a man's leg while another oversees them. Coloured aquatint by T. Rowlandson, 1793. (Wellcome Library no. 11636i).

Item of the Month, November 2011: Certificate of attendance at William Hunter's lectures



One of the pivotal figures in eighteenth century medicine, William Hunter (born on May 23rd 1718 at Long Calderwood, Kilbride, Scotland) was an eminent doctor, surgeon, obstetrician and teacher of anatomy. Educated in Glasgow and Edinburgh, he arrived in London in 1741 and by 1746 had begun to give lectures on anatomy and dissection in Covent Garden. By 1756, Hunter’s esteem had risen to the extent that he became a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians.

Hunter regularly published essays and other works and became one of the outstanding physicians of the day, being appointed as physician extraordinary to Queen Charlotte in 1762. He had a school of anatomy built in 1770 in Great Windmill Street, London with an amphitheatre and what became an internationally famous collection. He died in March 1783 of a stroke following a long battle with that most recognisable of 18th Century diseases, gout. Whilst key to understanding the growth of the ‘man-midwife’ during this period, William Hunter’s career arguably now stands in the shadows of his younger brother, John.

The Wellcome Library acquired this certificate in May 2011. It dates from the Spring of 1755 when Hunter was still lecturing in Covent Garden and confirms that one Richard Colmer (surgeon) had satisfactorily completed anatomy and surgery courses under Hunter’s tutelage. The certificate, signed by Hunter, is headed by an engraved portrait of a bust of William Harvey, M.D., classical pillars to either side.

William Harvey was in born in Folkestone, Kent in 1578, educated at Canterbury, Cambridge University and Padua before joining the College of Physicians in 1604 and working at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, being appointed as physician extraordinary to James I in 1618 then physician in ordinary to King Charles in 1631. As many readers of this blog will no doubt be aware, his 1628 publication, Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus presented his discovery of the workings of the heart and the circulation of the blood.

As suggested by the use of his image on this certificate, Hunter was a clear admirer of Harvey. We know that Hunter purchased and read keenly a number of works from Harvey's own Library. Hunter also authored a manuscript – now held in the collections of University of Glasgow – which illustrates this interest: Historical Anecdotes of Dr. William Harvey by Wm. Hunter, collected from family papers, etc., communicated to me by Councillor Eliab Harvey of Lincoln's Inn-fields, from the College book, from his own writings, from writers, from the Records in St. Bartholomew's etc [1].

This certificate now joins the other material held by the Wellcome Library on William Hunter, which includes his classic work of obstetrics, The Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus Exhibited in Figures to other certificates of attendance and student notes made at his lectures. Indeed, our MS.2965 – which consists of notes made by William Brougham Monkhouse (later surgeon to H.M.S. Endeavour, 1768-1770 on Captain Cook's First Voyage) - dates from the same period as Colmer’s certificate of attendance at Covent Garden.

Whilst establishing a connection between Colmer and Monkhouse is outwith the purposes of this blog, let’s instead consider the connections between Hunter and Harvey and one man of medicine paying homage to another.

[1] See K Bryn Thomas, 'William Hunter on William Harvey', Medical History, 1965 July; 9(3): 279–286

Author: Stephen Lowther

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ఆశియా దేశాల చంద్ర యానం

ఆశియా దేశాల చంద్ర యానం



20వ శతాబ్దంలో అమెరికా, సోవియట్ రష్యాలు చంద్రుని చేరాయి. 21వ శతాబ్దంలో ఇప్పుడు ఆసియా దేశాలు ప్రయాణమయ్యాయి.
1960, 70 దశకాలలో అమెరికా, సోవియట్ రష్యా దేశాలు పోటీపడి చంద్రుని చేరాయి. ఇప్పుడు ఆ పోటీ ఆశియా దేశాల మధ్య మోదలైంది. 2007 సెప్టెంబరులో జపాన్ వారు "కుగయ" అనే అంతరిక్ష నౌకను ప్రయోగించారు. చైనా వారి "చాంగై-1" అక్టోబరులో చంద్రుని వైపు దూసుకుపోయింది. భారత అంతరిక్ష పరిశోధన సంస్థ ఇస్రో(ISRO), 2008 ఎప్రియల్ నాటికి "చాంద్రాయన్ - 1 " ను ప్రయోగించడానికి త్వరితగతిన సన్నాహాలు చేస్తున్నది. దక్షిణ కొరియా కూడా చంద్రుని అధ్యయనానికి ఒక నౌకను ప్రయోగించే ఉద్దేస్యంలో ఉంది.
చంద్రుని అధ్యయనం చేయడం ద్వారా అంతరిక్ష నౌకల నిర్మాణం, ప్రయోగం వంటి సాంకేతిక పరిజ్ఞానంపై పట్టు సాధించవచ్చునని, ఇది తురువాతి కాలంలో రోదసీలోని ఇతర గ్రహాలను అధ్యయనం చేయటానికి ఎంతో తోడ్పడుతుందని ఖగోళ శాస్త్రజ్ఞులు అభిప్రాయపడుతున్నారు.
భారత్-రష్యాలు 2011-12 నాటికల్లా చంద్రునిపై చరించగల వాహనాన్ని పంపడానికి ఒక అవగాహనకు వచ్చాయి. చైనా కూడా ఇటువంటి వాహనాన్ని పంపించాలని ప్రయత్నిస్తోంది. ఇది ఇలా వుండగా, అమెరికా 2020 నాటికి చంద్రునిపైకి మానవులను తిరిగి పంపటానికి ప్రణాళికలను సిద్దం చేస్తోంది.

వ్యవసాయం - ఆహార భద్రత

వ్యవసాయం - ఆహార భద్రత

వర్షాభావ పరిస్థితుల ప్రభావం

ఒకవేళ మాన్సూను కాలంలో వర్షపాతం తగ్గితే, ఆహార భద్రతను సమకూర్చే కార్యకలాపాలు కుంటుపడవచ్చు. అప్పడు నిరుపేదలకు ఆహారం ఎలా అందించగలం అనేది అసలు సమస్య. పైగా, యూపీఏ ప్రభుత్వం ప్రజలందరికీ ఆహార భద్రత విషయమై ఒక చట్టం తెచ్చే ఉద్దేశ్యంలో ఉన్న తరుణమిది. గ్రామంలోనైనా, పట్టణంలోనైనా, దారిద్ర్య రేఖకు దిగువనున్న ప్రతి కుటుంబానికి, కిలో మూడు రూపాయలకే, నెలకు 25 కిలోల బియ్యం గానీ,గోధుమలు గానీ అందించే విధంగా ఓ కొత్త చట్టం తేవాలన్నది ముఖ్య యోచన. అందుకని, మన వ్యవసాయం వర్షాల మీద తక్కువగా ఆధారపడే విధంగా మార్చాలని మంత్రిత్వశాఖ ప్రయత్నిస్తోంది. "ఈ ఆహార భద్రత కార్యక్రమాలలో విజయం సాధించాలంటే, వ్యవసాయ రంగాన్ని సమూలంగా మార్చాలి " అంన్నారు ఓ సీనియర్ ప్రభుత్వాధికారి. "వ్యవసాయోత్పత్తి పెరగకపోతే, ఫ్రభుత్వం ఖచ్చితంగా మాట నిలబెట్టుకోలేదు" అనేది ఆయన వాదం. అందుచేత ఓ అగ్రికల్చరల్ స్టిమ్యులస్ ప్యాకేజి (వ్యవసాయ ఉద్దీపన)కోసం, మంత్రిత్వ శాఖ కోరాలనేది ఆయన చెప్పే మాట.
అందుకనే, ఈ వాతావరణ సూచనల ద్రుష్ట్యా ప్రభుత్వం కేంద్ర, రాష్ట్ర యంత్రాంగాలను సమాయుత్తపరుస్తోంది. ప్రాంతాలవారీగా పునః సమీక్షించి, వ్యవసాయ విశ్వవిద్యాలయాలతో సంప్రదించి, రైతులకు సరియైన సమయంలో సలహానందించవలసిందింగా, రాష్ట్ర "వెదర్ వాచ్ గ్రూపులను" వ్యవసాయ శాఖ, గురువారం జరిగిన సమావేశంలో కోరింది. పంటల పరిస్థితులపై మీడియా సహాయంతో సమాచారం అందించాలనీ కోరింది. ఒక ప్రత్యేక హెల్ప్‌లైన్ - ఫోను నంబరును ఏర్పరచాలని, తద్వారా వివిధ పరిస్థితులకు అనుగుణంగా, తమ తమ రాష్ట్ర రైతులకి ప్రత్యామ్నాయ వ్యవసాయ సూచనలను/ సాగు పద్ధతులను తెలియజేయాలని కోరింది. అగ్రికల్చర్ టెక్నాలజీ మ్యానేజ్‌మెంటు ఏజెన్సీ నుంచి, కావల్సిన ఆర్ధిక వనరులు అందిచవచ్చని తెలిపింది.

భారతదేశం - అణుశక్తి రంగంలో ప్రగతి

భారతదేశం - అణుశక్తి రంగంలో ప్రగతి

అణుశక్తి రంగంలో స్వయం సంమృద్ధిని సాధించడానికి భారత్ మూడంచెల విధానాన్ని అవలంభిస్తోది
1940లో భారతదేశంలో అణుశక్తి కార్యక్రమాల రూపకల్పన ప్రారంభమయ్యింది. అప్పటికే దేశంలో విస్తారంగా లభిస్తున్న యురేనియం, థోరియం నిల్వలను సమర్థవంతంగా ఉపయోగించుకొనేందుకు వీలుగా మూడు దశల అణుశక్తి సాధన కార్య్రకమాన్ని మన శాస్త్రవేత్తలు రూపొందించారు.
  • మొదటి దశ :

    ఈ దశలో సహజ యురేనియంను పీడన భార జల రియాక్టర్ల ద్వారా మండించిన శక్తిని ఉత్పత్తి చేస్తారు. ఈ ప్రక్రియల్లో ప్లూటోనియం ఉత్పత్తిగా ఏర్పడుతుంది.
  • రెండవ దశ:

    ఈ దశలో మొదటి దశలో ఉత్పత్తి అయిన ప్లూటోనియం ఫాస్ట్ బ్రీడర్ రియాక్టర్లో చర్య జరిగి శక్తి (విద్యుత్)తో పాటు ఉప ఉత్పత్తిగా థోరియం నుంచి యురేనియం -233 ఉత్పత్తి అవుతుంది.
  • మూడవ దశ:

    ఈ దశలో కార్యక్రమం సంక్లిష్టతను సంతరించుకొంటుంది. థోరియం నుండి గణనీయ పరిమాణంలో యు-233- ఉత్పత్తి ప్రారంభమవుతుంది. ప్రస్తుతం మొదటి దశ వాణిజ్య ఉత్పత్తి స్థాయికి చేరింది. ఒక రెండో దశ కల్పక్కంలోని ఫాస్ట్ బ్రీడర్ టెస్ట రియాక్టర (ఎఫ్ బి టిఆర్) విజయవంతం కావడంతో మొదలయ్యింది. యురేనియం -233 ఇంధనం కూడా వెలికి తీయడంతో మూడో దశకు అంకురార్పణ జరిగినట్లయింది.
మొదటి దశలో ఉపయోగించే అధిక పీడన భారజల కర్మాగారం, నమూనా నిర్మానం, పనిచేయించడంలో భాతర దేశం పూర్తి సాంకేతిక సామర్ధ్యాన్ని సాధించింది. అలాగే అణుశక్తి వెలికితీత చక్రంలోన ఎక్సఫ్లోరేషన్, మైనింగ్, ప్యూయల్, ఫ్యాబ్రికేషన్, డిజైనింగ్ తో పాటు న్యూక్లియర్ పవర్ రియాక్టర్ నిర్మాణము, నిర్వహణ సామర్ధ్యాలలో భారత శాస్త్రవేత్తలు పురోగతి సాధించారు. భారత దేశంలోని ఫాస్ట్ బ్రీడర్ రీసెర్చ్ రియాక్టర్ల కోసం తారాపూర్ అణువిద్యుత్ కేంద్రం శుద్ధి చేసిన యురేనియంను ఉత్పత్తి చేస్తుంది.

అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రాలు

భారతదేశంలో అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రాల నమూన, రూపకల్పన, నిర్మాణం, నియంత్రణ వంటి కార్యకలాపాలను న్యూక్లియర్ పవర్ కార్పొరేషన్ ఆఫ్ ఇండియా లిమిటెడ్ (NPCIL) నిర్వహిస్తుంది.
1969లో తారాపూర్ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్ర నిర్మాణ (TAPS)తో భారతదేశంలో అణు విద్యుత్ ఉత్పత్తి అంకురార్పణ జరిగింది. రెండు 210మె.వా. ఉత్పాదన సామర్ధ్యం కలిగిన యూనిట్లు ఉన్నాయి. దీనిలో ఇంధనంగా ఎన్ రిచ్ డ్ యురేనియం (LUE)తో పాటు యురేనియం ప్లూటోనియం ఆక్సెడ్లు (MOY) మిశ్రమాన్ని కూడా ఉపయోగిస్తారు. ఇటీవల ఈ కేంద్రానికి చైనా నుండి లో ఎన్ రీ చ్ డ్ యురేనియం సరఫరా జరుగుతున్నది.
రాజస్థాన్ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం(RAPS) : రవత్ భాటలో ఈ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం స్థాపించారు. ఇందులో రెండు ప్రొటోటైప్ పిఎచ్ డబ్ల్యుఆర 220 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం కలిగిన యూనిట్లు ఉన్నాయి. ఈ కేంద్రంలో ఇందనంగా సహజ యురేనియంను వాడుతారు. ఈ రెండు యూనిట్లు 1972. 1981లో క్రిటికాలిటిని సాధించాయి. మూడవ, నాల్గవ యూనిట్లలలో ప్రేసరైజ్ డ్ హేవీ వాటర్ రియాక్టర్ లను ఉపయోగిస్తున్నారు. అత్యున్నత సాంకేతిక పరిజ్ఞానం కలిగిన ప్రేసరైజ్ డ్ హెవీ వాటర్ రియాక్టర్ ఉపయోగించిన దేశంలోని మొదటి అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం.
కల్పకంలోని మద్రాస్ అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం 1984లో వాణిజ్యపరంగా ఉత్పత్తి ప్రారంభించింది. ఇక్కడ ఉపయోగించిన పి.ఎచ్.డబ్ల్యు.ఆర్. రియాక్టర్లు పూర్తిగా స్వదేశీ పరిజ్ఞానంతో రూపొందించారు. ఈ విద్యుత్ కేంద్రాలనుండి చెన్నై నగరానికి విద్యుత్ సరఫరా జరుగుతుంది.
నరొరా అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం, విద్యుత్ ఉత్పత్తి సామర్ధ్యం220మె.వా. ఉత్తర ప్రదేశ్, ఢిల్లీలకు ఈ కేంద్రం నుండి విద్యుత్ సరఫరా జరుగుతుంది.
కక్రాపార అణు విద్యుత్ కేంద్రం 220 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం కలిగి ఉంది. దీనితో భారతదేశంలో మొత్తం అణు విద్యుత్ స్థాపన 1720 మె.వా.కు పెరిగింది.

అణుశక్తి పరిశోధన - అభివృద్ధి

భారతదేశంలో అణుశక్తి పరిశోధనలు ముఖ్యంగా ట్రాంబేలోని బాబా అటామిక్ రీసెర్చ సెంటర్(BARC) కల్పకంలోని ఇందిరాగాంధీ సెంటర్ ఫర్ అటామిక్ రిసర్ ్చ (IGCAR) ఇండోర్లోని సెంటర్ఫర అడ్వాన్స్డ్ టెక్నాలజీ కోల్కతాలోని వేరియడా ఎనర్జీ క్లైక్లోట్రాన్ సెంటర్లో జరుగుతున్నాయి. బాబా అణు పరిశోధనా కేంద్రాన్ని (BARC)ను 1957లో నెలకొల్పొనారు. ఇది భారతదేశ అణుశక్తి పరిశోధనకు కీలకమైంది.
పూర్తిగా స్వదేశీ పరిజ్ఞానంతో నెలకొల్పొన ఒక మె.వా. సామర్థ్యం కలిగిన మొదటి భారతీయ పరిశోధన రియాక్టర్ అస్పర.40 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం కలిగిన సైరస్ (CIRUS) రియాక్టర్ 1960 నుండి చేయ... ప్రారంభించింది. పూర్ణిమ 2 యు-233 ఇంధనాన్ని ఉపయోగించిన రాయాక్టరు. 1985లో పని చేయడం ప్రారంభించిన ధృవ. పూర్తిగా స్వదేశీ పరిజ్ఞానంతో నిర్మించిన 100 మె.వా. సామర్ధ్యం గల రియాక్టరు. కల్పకంలోని కామిని రియాక్టర్ న్యూట్రాన్ ఇంధన ఆథారితమైనది.

భారతదేశం - అణు పరీక్షలు

భారతదేశం - అణు పరీక్షలు

1974 మే 18న మొదటిసారిగా రాజస్థాన్లోని పోఖ్రాన్లో భారతదేశం అణు పాటవ పరీక్షలు నిర్వహించింది. ఈ పరీక్షలో ప్లూటోనియంను ఉపయోగించారు. దీని ప్రేలుడు శక్తి 12 కిలోటన్ టి.ఎన్.టి.లకు సమానం. ఈ పరీక్షల వల్ల ఎటువంటి రేడియోధార్మికత వెలువడలేదు. 24 సంవత్సరాల తర్వాత 1998 మేలో రెండవ సారి భారతదేశం అణు పరీక్షలు నిర్వహించింది. దీనితో హభారతదేశం అణుశక్తి సామర్ధ్యం ఉన్నదని ప్రపంచదేశాలకు చాటింది. మే 11 నుండి మే 17 మధ్య జరిగిన ఈ పరీక్షలు 'ఆపరేషన్ శక్తి 98' అనే సంకేతనామంతో పిలిచారు. మే 11న జరిపిన మూడు అణు పరీక్షలలో ఒకటి థెర్మోన్యూక్లియర్ హైడ్రోజన్ బాంబు కాగా మిగతావి రెండు అణు పరీక్షలలో ఒకటి మధ్య రకమైన, ఇంకొటి స్వల్ప శక్తిగల అణు పరీక్షలు . మే 13న నిర్వహించిన రెండు అణు పరీక్షలు డిజైన్లో మెరుగైన కంప్యూటర్ సిమ్యూలేషన కోసం అదనపు డేటా సాధనకు వీటిని ఉపయోగించారు.

Monday, November 28, 2011

Music of the blind

Blind musicians in Paris. Detail of lithograph by Martin Sylvestre Baptiste, 1828. Wellcome Library no. 16519i
An article by Ingrid Sykes in the latest issue of Medical History considers the blind in Paris from an unusual angle: their sound. One might think that the blind would sound the same as the sighted, but no, not in Paris in the years before and after the French Revolution. [1]

There was in Paris a mediaeval institution called the Hospice des Quinze-Vingts, founded by King Louis IX in the thirteenth century. The Hospice was a self-governing community of 300 (quinze-vingts, or 15 x 20) blind and partially sighted men and women, their spouses and their children. The hospice's autonomy and antiquity, its often truculent and anarchic spirit, the fact that it was founded by a king and protected by a cardinal (the Grand Almoner, Cardinal de Rohan), all brought it into conflict with the new spirit of improvement and control in the French Enlightenment.

The character of the Hospice was expressed in its sound. The musicians of the Quinze-Vingts could be heard in Paris on the streets, at fairs, and at an all-night café. Fiddlers, woodwind performers and vocalists produced a raucous popular sound in which successive members would perform as soloists followed by a chorus in which all performers would join. The results were variously described as "depraved", "threatening", and even as "une scène si déshonorante pour l'espèce humaine" (a scene dishonourable to the human race). The politer sort would give them some small change in order to make them go away. The print above shows one of the Quinze-Vingts bands in their outlandish costume about to have a brawl on the street with a rival amputee musician.

Left, Valentin Haüy,with, far left, his brother, the crystallographer René-Just Haüy. Engraving by the brothers Boilly, Jules and Alphonse; Wellcome Library no. 545537i

A performance by a Quinze-Vingts band made a deep, though not favourable, impression on the reformer Valentin Haüy (1745-1822). It was after hearing a performance of the Quinze-Vingts, described by him as "cette atrocité", that Valentin Haüy decided to found a new institution for the blind, organized along more up-to-date lines. [2] This was the Institut des Jeunes Aveugles (Institute for Blind Youth), a typical Enlightenment institution. Secular, educational, managed by the sighted, run by the state and not by the church, the new organization's nature was signalled by its name: not a mediaeval Hospice but a structured Institut.

Aquatint with etching by Marlé, 1805. Wellcome Library no. 545557i

The character of the Institut was also signalled by its musical performances. Instead of the popular music of the Quinze-Vingts, the blind would be trained in the harmonic system of the composer Rameau: the new system was based on Cartesian mathematics and was published in a book ominously entitled Code de musique pratique (1761).

The Hospice had always existed and was there by Royal fiat. The Institut was an innovation and was there for a purpose. In the 1790s attempts were made by the revolutionaries to suppress the Hospice, invoking the inmates' licentious life-style and spirit of independence. Suppression was avoided, but, despite their disparate characters, the Hospice and the Institut were amalgamated in 1805, largely for financial reasons. The print above recording Pope Pius VII's visit in that year shows the more decorous appearance of the blind, their more harmonious means of music-making, and their more regimented organization under the Institut.





















Sébastien Guillié (1780-1865). Left, as a young man: lithograph by C. Motte. Wellcome Library no. 3852i. His initial is given as J by mistake. Right, in later life: photograph by Giraudon, 1865. Wellcome Library no. 12835i

The merger did not last. In 1816 a new director, the despotic doctor Sébastien Guillié (above), determined to rid the Institut of its association with the Quinze-Vingts: he moved it away to a new site where, in the name of progress, he could carry out ophthalmological experiments on the blind children selected as his victims. [3] The Quinze-Vingts musicians continued their performances on the street for some years more, but could not defy change indefinitely: their building is now the site of a modern ophthalmological centre, the Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts à Paris.

There is more to it than that, and more is provided in the article, which is available free online. One last point: the whole story would provide marvellous material for an opera. Richard Strauss and Clemens Krauss wrote Capriccio about different genres of drama and the relation between words and music. Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill included in The Threepenny Opera street songs and conflict with the police. Perhaps the authors of Les Misérables would like to produce a successor to those works, based on the struggles of the Quinze-Vingts? There would be a dramatic conflict between the two types of music, the protagonists on each side would provide plenty of character, and there would be scope for a variety of indoor and outdoor sets. And Victor Hugo himself could have a cameo role: according to the article, he was one of the champions of the Quinze-Vingts in their struggle against bureaucracy.

[1] Ingrid Sykes, 'Sounding the "Citizen–Patient": the politics of voice at the Hospice des Quinze-Vingts in post-Revolutionary Paris', Medical history, 2011 October; 55(4): 479–502. Available free online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199644/

[2] Pierre Henri, La vie et l'œuvre de Valentin Haüy, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1984, pp 37-43 (find in the Wellcome Library
here)

[3] Zina Weygand, The blind in French society from the Middle Ages to the century of Louis Braille, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2009, pp. 261-267 (find in the Wellcome Library
here)

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Hair loss solution


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How to Get Pearl Teeth like Celeb


One of the Hollywood celebs’ secrets of their fascinating look is they always pay much attention to their teeth. Actually, no need to be a celeb, you can also get the pearl teeth with the simple tips as following.

First, always take care of your teeth and mouth. Brush your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste is one of the effective ways. Second, remember that you are what you eat! You better eat a well balance diet and prevent tobacco products. Smoking is really harmful for your teeth and mouth. It causes the yellow tone of the teeth, and worse, can also causes oral cancer. Third is bleaching. It’s the most common way to get white teeth recently. In bleaching processes, special chemical is applied to the teeth to make them whiter. Bleaching is very popular because the process is so simple that you can apply yourself at home.

Another more modern way to get white teeth is Veneers. A veneer is the process of coating your teeth using composite materials, or porcelain. Unlike bleaching, veneer process can only be done by a dentist. Always consult your dentist when you like to have veneer teeth. See? To get the bling bling teeth like celeb is really easy!

New species of Indonesian sharks and rays

"Indonesia has the most diverse shark and ray fauna and the largest shark and ray fishery in the world, with reported landings of more than 100,000 tons a year,'' said William White, a co-author of the sharks and rays research.

Twenty new species of sharks and rays have been discovered in Indonesia in a five-year survey of catches at local fish markets, Australian researchers said Wednesday.

The survey by the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), represents the first in-depth look at Indonesia's sharks and rays since Dutch scientist Pieter Bleeker described more than 1,100 fish species from 1842-60.

Researchers said six of their discoveries have been described in peer review journals, including the Bali Catshark and Jimbaran Shovelnose Ray, found only in Bali, and the Hortle's Whipray, found only in West Papua.

From 2001 to 2006, researchers photographed and sampled more than 130 species on 22 survey trips to 11 ports across Indonesia. More than 800 specimens were lodged in reference collections at the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense at Cibinong, Java, and the Australian National Fish Collection at Hobart.

The survey was part of a broader project working toward improved management of sharks and rays in Indonesia and Australia, researchers said. “Good taxonomic information is critical to managing shark and ray species, which reproduce relatively slowly and are extremely vulnerable to overfishing,'' White said in a statement.

Interesting Animal Facts

A single cow lets out the amount of harmful methane gas, which can fill about 400-liter bottles; that too in a single day. Pollution!

Roar, roar! I am the king of the jungle! But did you know the lion would be defeated by a polar bear in a battle between the two?

Humans daydream with their eyes open, and dolphins actually sleep with their eyes wide open.

Bulls are known to be colorblind. It’s a black-and-white life for them!

The sweat glands of a cow are in its nose.

This is really interesting! You will not believe this one! A mosquito has 47 teeth.

The Poison Arrow frog has enough poison stored in it that it can harm 2,200 people at one go.

A ‘blessing’ is a herd of unicorns.

A ‘mob’ is not just a group of unruly people; but also a group of kangaroos – well behaved or not!

A ‘parliament’ is not just made up of our dear politicians, but is also a group of owls.

Hang a chicken upside down and give it something to eat. The result! It will not be able to swallow its food.

Brainpower! A garden caterpillar has 248 muscles in its head.

The memory span of goldfish is just about 3 seconds.

While a donkey will sink in quicksand, a mule will not.

According to records there are 50 million monkeys. That is quite an over population!

An angry horned-toad squirts blood from its eyes. Bloodshot eyes!

My blue-eyed boy! A scallop has 35 eyes that are blue in color.

Before a spotted skunk is about to spray it will first do a couple of handstands.

Amazing Animal Facts

A horse weighing approximately 1,200-pounds, eats approximately seven times it's own weight, in a year. That amounts to almost 8,400-pounds of food. Wow! What an appetite!

Apart from human’s even chimpanzees can learn to recognize their own image in a mirror.

A cow can give far more milk than a human can consume their lifetime. Any guesses? Almost 200,000 glasses full of milk!

While there are so many cows grazing in the world, no two cows will ever be found with identical pattern of spots.

A probable identity crisis we have here! Though named polecat, this creature is not a cat but a nocturnal weasel-species in Europe.

Is a zebra black with white stripes, or white with black stripes? Any guesses? Well, it’s white with black stripes.

Talk about noise pollution in the jungles! A lion’s roar is so loud that it can heard upto a distance of five miles.

Cheetahs maybe large and fast, but when they roar they chirp. This sounds more like a bird or a yelping dog. Beware, it is loud enough to be heard upto a mile away.

The tusks of elephants grow through their life. The tusks weigh over 200 pounds.

Only the male Asian elephants have tusks.

The male and female African elephants have tusks.

The largest ever lobster to be found weighed 19 kg. It was found in 1934.

The largest recorded jellyfish measured 2,3 m across its bell. Its tentacles measured 36 m (120 feet) in length.

The largest giant squid ever found weighed 4 tons. It was traced in the in the North Atlantic in the year 1878.

Funny Animal Facts

Have you heard of a sheep with blue wool? Well, a couple of animal breeders from Russia had claimed sometime ago that they bred sheep with natural blue wool.

“Moo, moo,” says the cow everywhere in the world; and a pig says “Moo, moo” in Japan.

The eyesight of dogs are better than that of human beings.

Animal accents! The accent of a cow’s mooing depends on the region it belongs to.

On an average a hen lays 19 dozen eggs in a year.

The small intestine of an ostrich measures upto 46-feet in length.

Your pet cat can scare a black bear. The big fellow will run up a tree to save itself from the little domestic creature. Meow, meow!

Sleeping beauties! Gorillas sleep upto fourteen hours, a day.

While the male lion rests in its den, it is the females that have go out and get the food.

Simon says Jump! No point an elephant simply cannot jump to even save its life.

No right turn! The bats do not need any boards, for its always the left turn for them when exiting a cave.

Sharks are the only known species to never suffer from cancer.

Heavyweights! The tongue of a blue whale could weigh more than a full-grown adult elephant.

Oysters change from male to female gender several times during their lifespan.

Every shrimp is actually born a male and then become females as they mature.

An elephant can smell water from a distance of three miles.

A storage bin! The duckbill platypus is known to store upto six hundred worms in its cheek pouches.

Music lovers! Make a cow listen to music and there will be more milk in the bucket!

Improve Your Bird ID Skills

So you're enjoying a cup of coffee at your kitchen table when an unknown bird lands at your brand new feeder, and you ask yourself, "What kind of bird is that?" Or you're an experienced birder, determined to learn the sparrows, out in the field with an unfamiliar bird in focus. Now what? Like any skill, you need to practice to get good. Using the clues below, try to improve your identification skill set!

Clue 1. Describe what you see. This is the best way to really SEE a bird. Take the time to go over the bird, being patient to notice every part of it. What color is it? What does its bill look like? Does it have long legs or short ones? A great way to make yourself notice all the details about a bird is to say them out loud. If there is someone with you, tell them what you see: "Well, it's blue and has a long bill in relation to its head..." Even if there isn't anyone there, quietly tell yourself, "OK, light brown head with a black stripe across the eyes..." Writing down what you have noticed definitely solidifies the clues in your head, so take the time to jot down a few words in your notebook.

Clue 2. What is it doing? Noticing behavior is the untapped gem of bird identifying! Most good ID guides will not only show you what the bird looks like, but tell you what kind of behaviors the bird exhibits. Some birds do things that are dead giveaways, like tail bobbing, and you should learn to notice and remember these clues just as much as noticing the colors of undertail coverts.

Clue 3. What kind of sounds is it making? Learning songs and calls is another great way to help you identify a bird. Being able to walk outside and recognize birds by their sounds is a definite thrill, especially when it's unexpected. Develop an ear for bird sounds by listening to recordings of them.

Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance - a clue to global warming


Michael Angilletta of Indiana State University, a U.S.-led team of international biologists, says some ants have adjusted to well to urban warming and may help other species adapt to such climate change.

The researchers note large cities can be more than 10 degrees hotter than their surroundings, with such urban heat islands stressing animals and plants.

The scientists discovered that ants in Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America's largest city, can tolerate heat better than ants from elsewhere. That finding suggests Sao Paulo ants have adjusted physiologically in response to urban warming.

"We don't know whether this pattern will hold up for other species or other cities, but people should certainly be looking," said Angilletta, an associate professor of ecology and organismal biology. "Ultimately, this research could help us to understand how species will respond to global climate change."

Chimps menstruation


Males and females of various species often manage when they have sex to influence their chances of having offspring. For instance, nearly all chimpanzee sex takes place when females are at the most fertile points of their menstrual cycles.

Curiously, females are known to sync up their menstrual cycles—and how fertile they are—in a number of primate species. Humans may synchronize menstrual cycles as well, although this remains controversial. Whether or not chimpanzees, the closest relatives of humans, sync up their menstrual cycles had been uncertain.

To shed light on this phenomenon, primatologist Akiko Matsumoto-Oda at Okinawa University and her colleagues investigated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale Mountains National Park in Tanzania by the shores of Lake Tanganyika. There, Japanese researchers have studied the chimpanzees for more than 40 years.

After analyzing nine years of data, the team found chimps actually avoided synchronizing their fertility. The findings are detailed in the March issue of the journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

The Giant Ape in the Library

Quick – what’s the connection between a hundred-foot rampaging gorilla and the Wellcome Library?

Well, it wouldn’t be a common sight in the reading room, and although stepping out onto the Euston Road has its hazards they usually relate to heavy traffic and air quality, not colossal primates. There’s a thread linking the two, however, and it runs through our manuscript 7797.

On the face of it, MS.7797 is an unremarkable little piece of correspondence. The letterhead indicates that was written on an ocean liner – it’s actually dateable from external evidence to the early 1930s, the great heyday of Transatlantic liner travel, the ship being the Empress of Britain belonging to the Canadian Pacific Line. The recipient is addressed only as “Dear Doctor” - one presumes this is the ship’s medical officer. The writer is clearly suffering from problems in the throat – he thanks the doctor for a gargle he has been given, and asks about a nose and throat spray that he has used in the past when suffering from catarrh. His valet, he explains, forgot to pack both his normal supply of the medication, and the atomiser used to administer it, and he is trying to work out what it is that he should ask for to replace this.

So far so good, but where do the giant apes come in? Well, turning the page we see the writer’s identity, and it takes us into the reliably fascinating world of Edwardian pulp fiction: this is the thriller-writer Edgar Wallace (1875-1932). Wallace was born the illegitimate son of actors and had to make his own way in the world: drifting through various jobs in his teens and early twenties, he found his metier when he enlisted in the Army at the time of the Boer War, at the age of 25. Not that he was cut out to be a soldier: he disliked the infantry (he was physically lazy and completely unsuited to a life of square-bashing) and arranged a transfer to the Royal Army Medical Corps, then moved on from here to the Press Corps, where he found his niche. (Our RAMC/1707 documents him at this time of his life, performing at a military entertainment by reciting a Kipling poem.) From here on his career was built around the Fleet Street core skill of producing large amounts of readable text quickly and to deadline: journalism for the Daily Mail and similar middle-brow outlets, and a series of thrillers beginning in 1905 with The Four Just Men. Various apocryphal tales are related about the speed and fluency with which he produced his works: one of these has him dictating an entire novel over the course of a weekend. By the early 1920s, one of his publishers estimated that a quarter of the books read in England that year were by Wallace.

The ability to produce text quickly and in a way that reflected the public’s taste reliably soon had Wallace receiving calls from the film industry, and it is here that our letter comes in. In late 1931 Wallace sailed for the United States, engaged by RKO to work as a “script doctor”. This letter was written on the voyage across the Atlantic (the name of the ship enables us to tie it to this journey) - although he doesn't give us the exact date, we're in November 1931 and thus pretty much exactly eighty years ago. In Hollywood, prolific as ever, Wallace cranked out various scripts to order, including – in a pulp-fiction summit meeting – one for The Hound of the Baskervilles. Most notable, however, was the project on which he worked from December 1931 to February 1932, collaborating on “a gorilla picture” with producer Merian C. Cooper. This was to be King Kong, which of course remains to this day one of the most famous products of the Golden Age of Hollywood.

It was also the culmination of Wallace’s career, although he never lived to see it: by the time the film was released in 1933 he was dead. A lifetime of too much food, several packs of cigarettes every day, lots of sugary tea and as a little exercise as possible (the classic Fleet Street lifestyle, although to do Wallace justice he was a virtual teetotaller, omitting one of the classic journalist’s vices at least) caught up with him in late January 1932, when a doctor identified that he had been suffering from severe diabetes, untreated, for years. As if in response to the diagnosis, Wallace fell into a coma almost immediately and died in Beverly Hills on February 7th.

We see him in MS.7797, then, in the very last months of his life, but at a high point in his career: about to embark on the project that would outlive him and the reputation of his books. Wallace’s novels are still in print (at least, some of them – he wrote over 170 books and many require a search of second-hand bookshops) but although Sanders of the River and The Four Just Men have an honourable and secure place in the history of pulp, they don't have the massive public profile that they did in Wallace’s heyday. King Kong, however, lives on, and has been paid the ultimate Hollywood compliments of remakes and spinoffs. In a sense, having produced the script Wallace’s work was done, his place in history secure. It’s unlikely that the next remake will feature the Wellcome Library, with a screaming Fay Wray held aloft above 183 Euston Road. Still, we like to feel proud of our little foothold in this landmark of popular culture.


Images
MS.7797, front.
MS.7797, back, including signature (and annotation by a previous owner of the letter).
R.M.S. Empress of Britain, passing through the Saint Lawrence River near Quebec. Taken on July 10th in 1937, on the "Ile d'Orléans" by Horace Bélinge, now deceased. Made available under Creative Commons (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ ) through Wikimedia.
Original poster for King Kong, 1933, from Wikimedia, now out of copyright in the USA, EU and many other domains (see Wikimedia page for details of copyright status).

Monday, November 21, 2011

Saturday, November 19, 2011

the great biologists

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_biologists

NASA CURRENT NEWS

http://science.nasa.gov/

Friday, November 18, 2011

A big push for midwifery history

The last few weeks have seen two major collaborative projects in the field of midwifery archives come to fruition, opening up exciting new avenues for research and exploration.

Thanks to the Wellcome Library’s own partnership with the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and the generous support of the ICM for the cataloguing of its archive, this has now been completed and the material is fully accessible to researchers. Further details about this collection are available in a separate blog post.

On 4th November 2011 an event was also held at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) to mark the re-launch of the library and archive collections of the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) which are now co-located with the RCOG’s own archive and heritage collections at the RCOG’s headquarters at 27 Sussex Place, London. As highlighted by several speakers at the launch, anyone with even a passing awareness of the history of maternity care in this country will realise that the relationship between the two sets of professionals represented by these bodies has not always run smoothly and that childbirth has always been a highly-contested area, medically, socially, culturally and historiographically. This makes it all the more to be applauded that the RCM and the RCOG have shown the necessary vision to work together to secure a future for their heritage collections. We hope that some of our own users will support the venture by taking a pleasant stroll across Regent’s Park to consult them.

To give you a flavour, an outline catalogue of the RCM archive is now available on-line. There are organisational records going back to the foundation in 1881 of the Matron’s Aid Society. In addition, uniforms, badges, instruments and other objects, photographs, posters and the papers of individual midwives such as case registers, notebooks, and diaries give an insight into the work and experiences of midwives during the 20th century. Printed collections include a complete set of Nursing Notes and Midwives Chronicle. There are obvious synergies with the material held in the Wellcome Library, such as the papers of Rosalind Paget, who was heavily involved with the then Midwives Institute, and which include material relating to the running of the journal and the company Nursing Notes Ltd.

The RCM heritage collections can now be consulted alongside those of the RCOG which include its own institutional records, the personal papers of obstetricians and gynaecologists, and records of related organisations such as the Women's Visiting Gynaecological Club and the Royal Maternity Charity. The College also houses a collection of obstetric, midwifery, surgical and gynaecological instruments and artefacts and around 2000 rare books, including multiple editions of all the major works in the area, such as the obstetric atlases of Smellie and Hunter, and runs of clinical reports from maternity hospitals.

We have already noticed a growing interest in the history of midwifery, including from our friends at de partu, and hope that access to these major collections will give a further impetus to this trend.

Author: Jenny Haynes

Images:
- Midwife teaching at antenatal class c1940 (RCM/PH7/2)
- Midwife providing instruction in breastfeeding c1940 Archive Reference (RCM/PH7/2)
Both from the RCM Archive held at the RCOG. Copyright of the Royal College of Midwives.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

The HighTechScience Robot Collection

Gort from "The Day The Earth Stood Still"
Gort
Life Size 8' Tall
Robby the Robot
Robby the Robot
Life Size 7' Tall
B9 "Lost in Space Robot"
B9 Robot
Life Size 6 1/2' Tall
Cylon
Cylon
Life Size 6 1/2' Tall
WALL-E
WALL-E
Life Size 1 1/2' Tall
EVE
EVE
Life Size 1' Tall
Sonny from the 2004 movie "I, Robot".
I-Robot Sonny
Huey, Dewie & Louie
Huey, Dewie & Louie
Huey, Dewie, Louie
Life Size 2' Tall
Our ternimator T2 Robot
Terminator T2
C3PO from Star Wars
C3PO
Life Size 6 Tall
Our R2D2 Robot from Star Wars
R2D2
Life Size 3 1/2' Tall
E3PO Servant Droid    
E3PO Servant Droid
Life Size 6' Tall
Our Animatronic, Talking "Yoda" from Star Wars
Animatronic Yoda
Graupner RB-1000 Humaniod Robot
Graupner RB-1000
Our Mindstorms NXT Robot
Mindstorms NXT
Bioloid by Robotis
Bioloid
Maria from the 1927 silent film "Metropolis".
Maria
RoboScout by The Sharper Image
RoboScout
Buzz Lightyear from the movie "Toy Story"
Buzz Lightyear
Our Mega-Mech Robot
Mega-Mech
Our Scooter Robot
Scooter Robot
Our Tobor Robot Tobor Robot Honda's ASIMO Robot
ASIMO
Our RoboPhilo direct from RoboGames
RoboPhilo
Our RAD Robot version 1.0
R.A.D. Robot v1.0
Our R.A.D. Robot v2.0
R.A.D. Robot v2.0
Our R.A.D. Robot v3.0
R.A.D. Robot v3.0
Our R.A.D. Robot v4.0
R.A.D. Robot v4.0
Our Buck Rogers Twiki Robot
Twiki
Our "Tekno Sakura" Robot
Tekno Sakura 
Our Program-A-Bot Robot
Program-A-Bot
OmniBot 2000
OmniBot 2000
Our Robosapien V1 Robot
Robosapien V1
Robosapien by Wowwee Robotics
Robosapien V2
RS Media by Wowwee Robotics
RS Media
Our JoeBot Robot
JoeBot
Our Femisapien Robot
Femisapien
Tri-Bot by WowWee Robotics
Tri-bot
Our RoboRover Robot
RoboRover
Mr. Personality by WowWee Robotics
Mr. Personality
Our "Tommy Atomic" Robot
Tommy Atomic
Our Radio Shack Inflatable Robot
Radio Shack Inflatable
Our Hearoid Robot by Tomy
Hearoid
Rosie the Robot from the TV Show "The Jetson's"
Jetsons Rosie the Robot
Our RB5X Robot
RB5X
Our HexAvoider Robot
HexAvoider
Our "Digilent RDK" Robot Development Kit
Digilent RDK Basic
Our Digilent RDK Remote Robot
Digilent RDK Remote
Our Verbot Robot
Verbot
Our HootBot Robot HootBot Our My PAL 2 Robot
My PAL 2
Our Emiglio Robot
Emiglio

Lost in Space Robot
Wisdom Robot
Wisdom Robot
Our "Dance Star Mickey Mouse" Robot
Dance Star Mickey

RoboScooper
Roboquad by Wowwee
Roboquad
Wrex the Dawg by Wowwee
Wrex the Dawg
Our Spy Tacker Robot
Spy Tracker
Rovio by WowWee Robotics
Rovio
Ollo Bug by Robotis Ollo Bug VEXplorer Robot by Innovation First
VexPlorer
The Vex ProtoBot Robot
Vex ProtoBot
Our Hexbug Nano Robot HexBug Nano
Our HexBug Original
HexBug Original

HexBug Ant
Our HexBug Crab
HexBug Crab
Our HexBug Inchworm
HexBug Inchworm
Parallax SumoBot
Parallax SumoBot
The Penguin Bot by Parallax Inc.
Parallax Penguin Bot
Our Parllax Boe-Bot with Ping))) Sensors
Parallax Boe-Bot
Our Parallax Boe-Bot Robot with the Crawler Assembly
Parallax Boe-Bot Crawler
Our Parallax Scribbler S2 Robot
Parallax Scribbler S2
Our Parallax Stingray Robot with Ping))) Sensors
Parallax Stingray
Our Pleo Robot
Pleo
Our AR Drone Robotic Quadracopter

AR Drone Quadracopter
The Solar Fly by JCM Inventures
Solar Fly
Cybug SolarFly by JCM inVentures
Cybug Scarab
The OWI Sumo Robot
OWI Sumo Bot
Our Cytron Walking Biped Robot
Cytron Walking Biped
Our Solar Powered Frog Robot
Solar Frog Robot
Our Solar Powered Grasshopper Robot
Solar Grasshopper
Our Solar Powered Crab Robot
Solar Crab Robot
Our Moon Walker Robot
Moon Walker Robot
Our MicroRobot Cruiser
MicroBot Cruiser
Our AirRat Maze Solving Robot
AirRat Maze Robot
Sharper Image RoboBoxing Fighters
S.I. RoboBoxing
Rover Robot
Rover Robot
Our SkitterBot
SkitterBot
Our MagBug 2.0 Robotic Wall Climber
MagBug 2.0
Our Robotic Butterfly
Robotic Butterfly
Our "TrekBot" Robot TrekBot
Our BugBot Flapper
BugBot Flapper
Our BugBot Trax
BugBot Trax
Our BugBot Skipper
BugBot Skipper
Our BugBot Zook
BugBot Zook
Our Roboni-i Robotic Gaming System
Roboni-i
Our Tux Droid Robot
Tux Droid
Our RoboReptile Robot
RoboReptile
Our RoboRaptor Robot
RoboRaptor
"Herbie the MouseBot" from Solarbotics
Herbie the MouseBot
Our "Mr. Clock Radio" Robotic Clock
Robotic Clock
Our Antoid Robot from IBotz
Antoid
Our Hydrazoid Robot by iBotz
Hydrazoid
Our Elenco Scarab Robot
Scarab Robot
Our Elenco "Escape" Robot
Escape Robot
Our Elenco "Line Tracker" Robot
Line Tracker Robot
Our Elenco "Soccer Bot" Robot
Soccer Bot
Our Brat Biped Walking Robot
Brat Biped Robot
Our K-9 Robotic Dog K-9 Robotic Dog Our Sonic Robot
Sonic Robot
Our Little Android Robot
Little Android
Our Solar Powered Sea Gull Robotic Kit Solar Sea Gull
The Follow-Me Robot by Elenco
Follow-Me Robot
The Spykee Robot
Spykee
Gutter Cleaning System by IRobot
IRobot Gutter Cleaner
Our Roomba Robotic Vacuum
IRobot Roomba #4230
The Roomba #610 Robotic Vacuum by IRobot
IRobot Roomba #610
Roomba #380 Robotic Floor Washer by IRobot
IRobot Scooba # 380
Compact Scooba Floor Washing System by IRobot
IRobot Scooba Mini #230
MegaByte by Wowwee
Mega-Byte
I-Cybie
I-Cybie
Robopet by WowWee Robotics
Robopet
Aibo Robot by Sony
    Aibo coming soon
Our Tekno Robotic Puppy
Tekno Puppy
Our Tekno Robotic Kitty
Tekno Kitty
Our Mio Pup Robotic Pet
Mio Pup
Our Poo Chi Robot
Poo Chi
Our Tekno Bot Robot
Tekno Bot
Our Tekno Turtle Robot
Tekno Turtle
Our Tekno Boy Robot
Tekno Boy
Our Tekno Robotic Parrot
Tekno Parrot
Our 2-XL Educational Robot by Tiger Electronics
2-XL Educational Bot
Our Fisher Price "Kasey the KinderBot" Robot
Kasey the KinderBot
Our Toby the TotBot Robot
Toby the TotBot
Our Space Robo
Space Robo
Our RoboKid Robot
RoboKid
Our Dancing & Disc Shooting Robot
Dancing Robot
Our Perfect Penguin Robot
Perfect Penguin
Our Binary Player Robot by OWI
Binary Player Robot
Our Furby Robot
Furby Original
Our Funky Furby
Funky Furby
Our Emoto-Tronic Furby
Emoto-Tronic Furby
Our Baby Furby
Furby Baby
Our Special Edition Racing Furby
Racing Furby
Our Special Edition Wizard Furby
Wizard Furby
Our Special Edition Graduation Furby
Graduation Furby
Our Special Edition Millennium Furby
Millennium Furby
Our Special Edition Gizmo Furby
Gizmo Furby
Our Special Edition Halloween Furby
Halloween Furby
Our Special Edition Santa Furby
Santa Furby
Our "Rock Em Sock Em" Robots
RockEm SockEm Robots
  Soccerbot by Graupner Robotics
Soccerbot
Our TankBot Robot
TankBot
 
Robotic Koala Joey by WowWee
Robotic Koala Joey
    Our "MAR's" Motorized Attack Robot
Motorized Attack Robot
Our Starroid Radio Robot
Starroid Radio Robot
Our Robo Fan
Robo Fan
Our Space Robot Radio
Space Robot Radio
Our Nintendo R.O.B.  (Robotic Operating Buddy)
Nintendo R.O.B. Robot
Our Joke Master Jr. Robot
Joke Master Jr. Robot
Our Brian the Brain Educational Robot
Brian the Brain Robot
Our VTech Smarty Pets Robot
VTech Smarty Pets
Our LawnBott Robotic Mower Model #3210 LawnBott Robotic Mower
Our Genuine Vesicare Advertising Robot
Vesicare Ad Robot
Our Android Robot Android Robot
Our RoboMop Floor Cleaning Robot RoboMop
Our Dagu Robotic Platform Dagu Robotic Platform
Our OWI Weasel Robot
OWI Weasel Robot
Our Alpha Robot
Alpha Robot
Our Sharper Image WeeBot
Sharper Image

WeeBot
Our IBotz Reversing Robot
IBotz Reversing Robot
Our Cyber Spider Robot
Cyber Spider
Our Meow-Chi Robotic Cat
Meow-Chi
Our Sharper Image WeeBot Robot
S.I. WeeBot
Our Elenco Sound Tracker Robot
Elenco Sound Tracker
Our Original Armatron by Radio Shack
Armatron Original
Our Super Armatron
Super Armatron
Our OWI Robotic Arm
OWI Robotic Arm
Our OWI Robotic Arm Trainer
OWI Robotic Arm Trainer
Our I-Dog Robot
I-Dog
Our I-Turtle Robot
I-Turtle
Our I-CY Robotic Penguin
I-CY
Our RoboPanda Robot
RoboPanda
Our DustBot Robot
DustBot
Our SteamPunk Robot
     SteamPunk
Our Wowwee Alive! Chimp Robot
Robotic Chimp
Our Elvis Alive Robot
Robotic Elvis
Prime-8 by Bossa Nova Robotics
Prime-8
Penbo by Bossa Nova Robotics
Penbo
Our Ottobot Robot
Ottobot
RoboBoa from the WowWee Company
RoboBoa
Our Elenco Soccer Robot
Soccer Robot
Our JCM Sumo Robot
JCM Sumo Robot
Our QuadraBotz Robot
QuadraBotz
Our LynzMotion Hexapod Robot
LynzMotion Hexapod
Our Chatterbot Devil Robot
Chatterbot Devil
Our Chatterbot Dog Robot
Chatterbot Dog
Our Chatterbot Fairy Robot
Chatterbot Fairy
Our Climbatron Robot
Climbatron
Our Technibot XR-1 Robot
Technibot XR-1
Our "CompuRobot"
CompuRobot
Our George Robot
George Robot
Our Vincent Robot
Vincent Robot
Our Sir Galaxy Robot
Sir Galaxy
Buster the Robot
Buster the Robot
I-Sobot by Tomy
I-Sobot
Our Squawkers Robotic Parrot
Squawkers Robo Parrot
DingBot
DingBot

Ladybug Robot
Robotics Squared Animatronic Head
Robotics Squared
Nozzle Nolen Robotic Elephant
Nozzle Nolen Elephant
Robotic Polar Bear Cub by WowWee
Polar Bear Cub
Robotic Lion Cub by WowWee
Robotic Lion Cub
Robotic Panda Cub by WowWee
Robotic Panda Cub
Robotic Leopard Cub by WowWee
Robotic Leopard Cub
Robotic Husky Puppy by WowWee
Robotic Husky Puppy
Robotic Poodle Puppy by WowWee
Robotic Poodle Pup
Robotic Fox Terrier Puppy by WowWee
Robotic Fox Terrier
Robotic Seal Pup by WowWee Robotic Seal Pup
Robotic Tiger Cub by WowWee
Robotic Tiger Cub
Robotic Tiger Cub by WowWee
Orange Tiger Cub
Robotic Perfect Puppy Bella by WowWee
Perfect Puppy Bella
Robotic Perfect Puppy Buddy by WowWee
Perfect Puppy Buddy
Our Robotic Santa Claus
Robotic Santa Claus
Our Animated Mrs. Claus
Robotic Mrs. Claus
Our Animatronic Demented Fog Creature
Animatronic Fog Creature
Our Animatronic Arthur Robotic Head
Animatronic Arthur
Our Tombstone Ghoul Robot
Tombstone Ghoul
Our Hex Boy Robot
Hex Boy
Our "Drop Dead Fred" Animatronic
Drop Dead Fred
Our "Lifting Zombie" Animatronic
Lifting Zombie
Our Rising Ghoul Animatronic
Rising Ghoul
Our Spazm Robot
Spazm
Our "Wall Breaker" animatronic
Wall Breaker
Our Crawling Zombie Animatronic
Crawling Zombie
Our "Buzz" Electrocuted Man Robot.
Electrocuted Man
Our Hellraiser "Pinhead" Animatronic
Hellraiser Pinhead
Our Face Ripper Robot
Face Ripper
Our "Dobson the Butler" animatronic
Dobson the Butler
Our Full Size Frankenstein Animatronic
Frankenstein
Our "Rocking Granny" Animatronic Rocking Granny    
Our Robotic Witch
Robotic Witch
Our Mad Scientist Robot
Mad Scientist
Our Edwardian Butler Robot
Edwardian Butler
Our Groom & Brides Head Robot
Groom & Brides Head

 
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